Click Here For Rodolfo A. Fiorini Academic Curriculum Vitae


Symbiotic System Science (SSS)

Click Here To Email Dr. Rodolfo A. Fiorinir. Fiorini’s main research interest include cooperating with neuroscientists, physicians, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists to research and experiment innovative approaches to human wellbeing. Current activity at Politecnico di Milano is focused on promoting the use of intercultural transdisciplinary approaches to help the creation of reality levels where neuroscience, bioengineering and life sciences can synergically interact to create scientific discovery and the development of vital biomedical relationship through continuous social education and research. Click here for Rodolfo A. Fiorini Academic Curriculum Vitae.

Symbiotic System Science (SSS) is a growing scientific area which is taking a leadership role in fostering consensus on how best to bring about symbiotic relationships between autonomous systems with either Person-Centered System (PCS) or Social-Centered System (SCS) resources.

ICCI*CC 2019 Conference facilitates the development of the new field of SSS to consolidate and advance technological and managemental expertise with emphasis even on Ethical, Legal, and Societal (ELS) implications, and with the objective to promote fundamental human-centric economic and social growth.

Capitalizing on SSS insights and development, the recognition that SAS (Symbiotic Autonomous Systems) are poised to have a revolutionary impact on society over the coming years is quite straightforward. SAS is an intelligent and cognitive system embodied by computational intelligence in order to facilitate collective intelligence among human-machine interactions in a hybrid society. Current paradigms of SAS are such as natural intelligence systems, social computing systems, man-machine systems, cognitive systems, cognitive robots, bioinformatics systems, brain-inspired systems, self-driving vehicles, unmanned systems, intelligent IoT, cyber-physical-social systems, etc.

The adjective symbiotic derives from the noun Symbiosis.

Symbiosis is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic. The organisms, each termed a symbiont, may be of the same or of different species. In 1879, Heinrich Anton de Bary defined it as "the living together of unlike organisms". The term was subject to a century-long debate about whether it should specifically denote mutualism, as in lichens; biologists have now abandoned that restriction.

Symbiosis can be obligatory, which means that one or both of the symbionts entirely depend on each other for survival, or facultative (optional) when they can generally live independently.

Symbiosis is also classified by physical attachment; symbiosis in which the organisms have bodily union is called conjunctive symbiosis, and symbiosis in which they are not in union is called disjunctive symbiosis. When one organism lives on the surface of another, such as head lice on humans, it is called ectosymbiosis; when one partner lives inside the tissues of another, such as Symbiodinium within coral, it is termed endosymbiosis.

Historian Jan Sapp has said that "Lynn Margulis's name is as synonymous with symbiosis as Charles Darwin's is with evolution."

Lynn Margulis (born Lynn Petra Alexander; March 5, 1938 - November 22, 2011) was an American evolutionary theorist and biologist, science author, educator, and popularizer, and was the primary modern proponent for the significance of symbiosis in evolution. In particular, Margulis transformed and fundamentally framed current understanding of the evolution of cells with nuclei - an event Ernst Mayr called "perhaps the most important and dramatic event in the history of life" - by proposing it to have been the result of symbiotic mergers of bacteria. Margulis was also the co-developer of the Gaia hypothesis with the British chemist James Lovelock, proposing that the Earth functions as a single self-regulating system, and was the principal defender and promulgator of the five kingdom classification of Robert Whittaker.

Throughout her career, Margulis' work could arouse intense objection (one grant application elicited the response, "Your research is crap, do not bother to apply again", and her formative paper, "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells", appeared in 1967 after being rejected by about fifteen journals. Still a junior faculty member at Boston University at the time, her theory that cell organelles such as mitochondria and chloroplasts were once independent bacteria was largely ignored for another decade, becoming widely accepted only after it was powerfully substantiated through genetic evidence. Margulis was elected a member of the US National Academy of Sciences in 1983. President Bill Clinton presented her the National Medal of Science in 1999. The Linnean Society of London awarded her the Darwin-Wallace Medal in 2008.

Called "Science's Unruly Earth Mother", or a scientific "rebel", Margulis was a strong critic of neo-Darwinism. Her position sparked lifelong debate with leading neo-Darwinian biologists, including Richard Dawkins, George C. Williams, and John Maynard Smith. Margulis' work on symbiosis and her endosymbiotic theory had important predecessors, going back to the mid-19th century - notably Andreas Franz Wilhelm Schimper, Konstantin Mereschkowski, Boris Kozo-Polyansky (1890-1957), and Ivan Wallin - and Margulis took the unusual step of not only trying to promote greater recognition for their contributions, but of personally overseeing the first English translation of Kozo-Polyansky's Symbiogenesis: A New Principle of Evolution, which appeared the year before her death. Many of her major works, particularly those intended for a general readership, were collaboratively written with her son Dorion Sagan.

Symbiogenesis, or endosymbiotic theory, is an evolutionary theory of the origin of eukaryotic cells from prokaryotic organisms, first articulated in 1905 and 1910 by the Russian botanist Konstantin Mereschkowski, and advanced and substantiated with microbiological evidence by Lynn Margulis in 1967. It holds that the organelles distinguishing eukaryote cells evolved through symbiosis of individual single-celled prokaryotes (bacteria and archaea).

The theory holds that mitochondria, plastids such as chloroplasts, and possibly other organelles of eukaryotic cells represent formerly free-living prokaryotes taken one inside the other in endosymbiosis. In more detail, mitochondria appear to be related to Rickettsiales proteobacteria, and chloroplasts to nitrogen-fixing filamentous cyanobacteria.

Among the many lines of evidence supporting symbiogenesis are that new mitochondria and plastids are formed only through binary fission, and that cells cannot create new ones otherwise; that the transport proteins called porins are found in the outer membranes of mitochondria, chloroplasts and bacterial cell membranes; that cardiolipin is found only in the inner mitochondrial membrane and bacterial cell membranes; and that some mitochondria and plastids contain single circular DNA molecules similar to the chromosomes of bacteria.

More on SAS at IEEE Symbiotic Autonomous Systems

Tech Blog at IEEE Future Directions

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